Parental care might also be explained on altruistic grounds: the parent has a non-instrumental desire that the child do well. Another problem is that guilt may presuppose that the soldier has a non-self-regarding desire for doing what he takes to be right. Now, obviously not every scenario is that simple. The main problem here is that while this is a possible account of some cases, there is no reason to think it covers all cases. Ethical egoism might also apply to things other than acts, such as rules or character traits. The psychological egoist might handle apparent cases of self-sacrifice, not by adopting the trivial version, but rather by claiming that facts about the self-interest of the agent explain all behavior.
Let us go through these arguments. What is meant here is the fact that the principle of self-interest is the major moving force which motivates and defines human actions, moral values and behavior. But egoism is not an obvious moral choice. Many people will help someone in need without thinking of self-gain. But ethical egoism holds that we should not even try to be impartial.
Excerpt from Essay : Ethics and Nursing One of the you work with is an ethical egoist, should you report him to your nurses' supervisor? The purest form of free markets, however, is one where there are no rules, and everyone acts in his or her self-interest, within the bounds of the law. This argument can be directed against rational egoism as well. An ethical egoist sees egoism as superior to other moral theories. We therefore can analyze… 1977 Words 8 Pages Business ethics assist companies to make ethical decisions. Everyone is better off if each pursues his or her self-interest. Closet Utilitarian Argument The Closet Utilitarian Argument from Feldman, p.
Here's the logic: if I don't help someone, then I get a bad reputation and no one else will help me. In dealings with others who lack these abilities, the egoist has no reason to cooperate. For example, it allows one to keep some good, such as a job, for oneself, even if giving the good to someone else would help him slightly more, and it captures the intuition that I need not let others exploit me. Thus, an argument against the tragedy of the commons is fundamentally an argument for private property rights and the system that recognizes both property rights and rational self-interest—capitalism. This requires an argument to show that this particular objective theory gives the right account of self-interest. I could still count as an egoist, in the sense that I have adopted the non-egoist theory on egoist grounds. Mountain View, Calif: Mayfield Publishing: 127—67.
For example, it is in your self-interest to obey the law, to exercise, and to enroll in college, but no one would claim that it is selfish for you to do so. At best it is a logical possibility, like some forms of scepticism. The altruistic hypothesis also has some of the same problems: for example, just as there might not be enough pain, the non-instrumental desire that the child do well might not be strong enough to defeat other desires. So, you do desire to do your homework—just not for its own sake. Some people say that you judge through intentions, others by actions. For example, Joseph Butler writes that it may be necessary to act un-selfishly in order to receive benefits, which makes egoism self-contradictory.
Schilpp, New York: Tudor, 41—67. Normative—ethical or rational—egoism Normative egoism is not about what humans do, but about what they should do. I deny that others ought to maximize my good they should maximize their own goods. We are morally required only to make ourselves as happy as possible. Send corrections or suggestions to webmaster at philosophy.
Finally, all of commonly-accepted moral duties, from doing no harm unto others to speaking always the truth to keeping promises, are rooted in one fundamental principle of self-interest. Many of these constraints are met by ethical egoism — the formal constraints, for example, that moral claims must be prescriptive and universalizable. Think about it: how do you judge what is right and wrong? According to Rand, no-one has any right to expect or demand that I make any sacrifices for the sake of anyone other than myself. It is not a view at all about what we morally ought to do. A few people are saved, so that was a moral action.
The same seems to go for rational egoism: I am sufficiently motivated to act egoistically without any belief in the truth of rational egoism. True, the ethical egoist is unlikely to recommend ethical egoism to others, to blame others for violations of what ethical egoism requires, to justify herself to others on the basis of ethical egoism, or to express moral attitudes such as forgiveness and resentment. But there is at least reason to doubt the historical record. One way is through the results of our actions. That all persons seek their self-interest on this theory is a purported fact, and this belief is viewed by the psychological egoist as and verifiable. Whenever they act, they will be acting according to some ethical theory, whether they know it or not. In the cases above, A, B and C are continuous with me.