And the fruit of righteousness is sown in peace by those making peace. In Latin America, most notably in Brazil, death squads murder children, and in East Asia, the tourist trade makes young people victims of sexual exploitation. And the fruit of righteousness is sown in peace by them that make peace. Others argue that such an approach ignores the reality of grave evil in the world and avoids the moral responsibility to actively resist and confront injustice with military force if other means fail. All nations, including the United States, will have to accept the legitimate authority of these institutions; decision-making processes will have to be more truly democratic; decisions will have to be applied more consistently; and these institutions will have to have the capacity to enforce international law. These transnational actors human rights groups, humanitarian aid organizations, businesses, labor unions, the media, religious bodies and many others can build bridges of understanding and respect between cultures and can contribute to positive social change and a sense of global community.
Nevertheless, before the possibility is dismissed as impractical or unrealistic, we urge that it be measured against the almost certain effects of a major war. First, concerns about the limited effectiveness of sanctions and the harms caused to civilian populations require that comprehensive sanctions be considered only in response to aggression or grave and ongoing injustice, after less coercive measures have been tried, and with clear and reasonable conditions set for their removal. It is the God who forgives and restores who is now making all things well. As children of God we may come to our Father each day to examine ourselves honestly before his compassionate gaze. Our record on sanctions reflects an inherent dilemma involved in this form of pressure. Effective non-violent resistance requires the united will of a people and may demand as much patience and sacrifice from those who practice it as is now demanded by war and preparation for war. The world must find the will and the ways to pursue justice, contain conflict and replace violence and war with peaceful and effective means to address injustices and resolve disputes.
By its nature, the gift of peace is not restricted to moments of prayer. . Much needs to be done in order to institutionalize democratic political processes that will lead to justice for all Haitians. In 1983, we judged that nuclear deterrence may be morally acceptable as long as it is limited to deterring nuclear use by others; sufficiency, not nuclear superiority, is its goal; and it is used as a step on the way toward progressive disarmament. As with the peace pastoral, in these reflections we restate universally binding moral and religious principles.
Confronting a Culture of Violence: A Catholic Framework for Action, U. We cannot forget the scenes of people in the Philippines confronting guns and tanks with rosaries and flowers. The work of righteousness will be peace; the service of righteousness will be quiet confidence forever. He is a consultant to the Holy See Observer Mission to the United Nations on international security, and in that capacity was a member of the delegation that negotiated the Treaty to Prohibit Nuclear Weapons in 2017. Thomas Aquinas writes in his commentary on Romans, the unity of Christians can only come from the Spirit of Christ. It is also peaceable, lenient, docile, rich in sympathy and the kindly deeds that are its fruits, impartial and sincere. We watched with awe the courage and faithfulness of Solidarity and other movements for freedom in Eastern Europe.
We are grateful for all that has been done in the past decade by so many to help form consciences, and we are aware of how much more we can and must do to better translate our moral reflections on war and peace into informed commitments of conscience. The particular difficulties involved in meeting criteria of success and proportionality in cases of humanitarian intervention deserve careful scrutiny and further examination. Peace to you today, for the war has already been won! We applaud the courage, the imagination and the spirit of compromise that has been shown in negotiating this major advance toward peace in the Holy Land. Earthly, sensual, and devilish, answer to the three spiritual foes of man, the world, the flesh, and the devil. The just-war tradition begins with a strong presumption against the use of force and then establishes the conditions when this presumption may be overridden for the sake of preserving the kind of peace which protects human dignity and human rights.
For these reasons, the leaders and people of the United States are called to take up the vocation to peacemaking with new urgency and commitment. Our country, in this ever shrinking world, should reformulate its policies and programs to address the still widening gap between the rich and the desperately poor. Strategies and tactics that lead to avoidable casualties are inconsistent with the underlying intention of the just-war tradition of limiting the destructiveness of armed conflict. Some like Thomas Hobe had advocated that the human race was so war some and that due to the aggressive nature of work forces wars were non merely inevitable but really necessary in the class of every twenty-four hours interaction. The denial of basic needs may not be used as a weapon. In the context of as to whether Gentile converts should be held to the observance of the Jewish law, the Holy Spirit inspired the apostle James, bishop of Jerusalem, to speak in such a way that the dispute was settled cf. It arouses in us a compassionate love for all humanity and gives us heart to persevere beyond frustration, suffering and defeat.
For example, it is immoral for a commander to issue or for a soldier to obey a command to intentionally kill noncombatants in war. No doubt, finding ways to move the world beyond war will be a complex, demanding and difficult struggle. Even as the Middle East struggles toward a just peace, human rights continue to be a serious problem there. Concrete applications of universal principles such as our call to reject the first use of nuclear weapons and the targeting of nonnuclear states, and our call for nuclear disarmament are judgments about which Catholics may disagree. Building Cooperative Security Special Problems Earlier, we addressed the need to strengthen our international institutions, especially the United Nations, in order to end the scourge of war.
That desire has been fulfilled in Christ in whom humanity has been redeemed and reconciled. Despite areas of convergence between a nonviolent ethic and a just-war ethic, however, we acknowledge the diverse perspectives within our Church on the validity of the use of force. The renewed unity we experience in Christ is to be lived out in every possible way. And because the Spirit of unity flows into us from Christ— anyone who does not have the Spirit of Christ does not belong to him Rom 8:9 —he adds in Christ, who unites us to one another and to God by his Spirit whom he gives us: that they may be one even as we are one John 18:22. We are especially concerned about the religious dimension of some of these conflicts.