Empowering grandparents raising grandchildren: A training manual for group leaders. Passed in 1887, the Hatch Act authorized establishment of agricultural experiment stations to expand research capabilities of the land-grant universities. The extension worker then, with the various means disseminate these findings in such a way that the farm families can voluntarily adopt them to satisfy their own needs. This model maintains that self-efficacy is enhanced through four processes, some of which are directly related to earlier principles discussed in this article. To increase the likelihood of actual incorporation of knowledge into participants' lives, however, it is important to identify and support the specific knowledge and skills needed to support new behaviors. It will reduce dependency on so many actors in the chain of extension system, and frankly it will change the whole method of extension in coming decades. Moreover, providing many opportunities to observe and practice new behaviors within the educational setting increases the likelihood of behavior change.
Non formal education: Provide selected types of learning to particular sub groups of population according to their need. Similarly, Queso fresco raw milk cheese is a common and popular food in Mexico, where it is frequently made with unpasteurized milk. We must , in some way, bring this work to their personal attention. Competencies Needed by the Extension Agents : To cope with the above mentioned and various other situations, extension agents have to develop some competencies. Organizing farmers for collective decision-making. The main responsibility of extension service is with the State Government. Local leaders are th guardians of local thought and action and can be trained and developed to best serve as interpreter of new ideas to the villagers.
The fundamental objective of extension education is the development of the people. Satisfying results reinforce learning and motivate people to seek further improvement. To do so would be unwise , because often the pure research of today is the applied research of tomorrow. Basically, students study the problems. As evidence-based programs become available, Extension educators can profitably use these program models.
To disseminate research information of economic and practical importance in a way people would be able to understand and use. Given that behavior change is difficult and periodic relapse to old ways is likely, it is realistic to acknowledge that change will only occur over time with support and encouragement. Future Challenges for Extension : In the emerging scenario, the task of extension has now become to be more challenging which demands a system of market-led extension with specific focus on diversification, post- harvest management, export orientation, market intelligence and consumer orientation. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 6 2 , S163 - S179. The teacher extension workers starts with practical first in which they live and work then notes are made for basic understanding.
Extension helps in generating-knowledge appropriate to the people by finding out their needs and problems. Extension work shall be successful only when it is based on the interests and needs of the people as they see them. Changes in what people actually do — their actions related to factors determining their own welfare. Need for affiliation: People with a high need for affiliation usually derive pleasure from being loved and tend to avoid the pain of being rejected by a social group. Some examples of small social connections include family members, intimate partners, mentors, colleagues, and confidants. Extension workers have to change to meet the cultural changes among the people. Many times the interests of the rural people are not the interests of the extension agent.
By taking into consideration the capacity and competency of the people in the community and the availability of resources, the objective was set up to increase the crop yield by 20 percent within a certain period of time. People have unlimited potential for personal growth and development. Extension work shall be successful only when it is based on the interests and needs of the people as they see them. The development may take place at any stage of their lives, if they are provided with adequate and appropriate learning opportunities. To assist people in mobilizing and utilizing the resources which they have and which they need from outside.
The individual is supreme in democracy. Improvement can only begin from the level of the people where they are. Psychological and educational research has shown that behavioral change occurs and is maintained when interventions incorporate particular principles of behavior change. Cyber extension includes effective use of information and communication technology, national and international information networks, the Internet, Expert Systems, Multimedia Learning Systems and computer based training systems, to improve information access to the farmers, extension workers, research scientists and extension managers. A principle is a universal truth that has been observed and found to be truth and a settled rule of action. They help rural people appreciate the value 0 f improved methods of farming and homemaking.
However, as human beings, not only farmers, the extension agents also need motivation. The extension programme should give satisfaction to the people. Extension work changes as conditions change. Work should start from interests and needs of people. Extension satisfies this need by encouraging people to work together in groups.
I can only say that I view it as the most important subject in which we as a people may be engaged. Family is the first training group of the human race and 4. Ideas are dealt with on the basis of their value to the group, rather than on a basis of who introduces them. Extension Agent as a Democratic Group Leader and Other Details. It is necessary to determine the teaching results in an unbiased way. To identify the real needs and interests of the people are challenging tasks.
Features of Extension Education 3. Principle of participation- Actually, participation of people in extension programmes create self confidence and also they learn more by doing. The work they do is commensurate with their ability and the training extension agents give them. The participation of the people is of fundamental importance for the success of an extension programme. It has been seen that people become dynamic if they are permitted to take decisions relating their own responsibility, and are helped to carry out projects in their own villages. However, it is democratic in a way that all possible solutions are placed before the participants, and their merits are highlighted through mutual discussions.