If women played while on their periods, experts warned, they could become sterile or it could cause birth defects. Theorizing Feminism: Parallel Trends in the Humanities and Social Sciences. Nonetheless, one can imagine that such relationships might well have suffered from the kind of sexism Wilson warns against, especially given that the heterosexual roles they imitated arose out of an rigidly sexist culture. Baltimore Afro-American, Magazine Section, 29 June 1957; 1. It includes interviews with drag kings and descriptions of events and relies heavily upon the drag kings' own statements about their performances.
When experts warned of the amazonian athlete's possible sexual transgressions, they linked the physical release of sport with a loss of het- erosexual control, not of intlination. How do you feel when you get mistaken for a guy? So which one are you? Historically, European American racial thought characterized African American women as aggressive, coarse, passionate, and physical-the same qualities assigned to manliness and sport. The confhct was a complicated one, involving competing class and gender interests played out in organizational as well as philosophical battles. You brought that with you. They exchanged old rationales of fitness and fun for promises of trimmer waistlines, slimmer hips, and prettier complexions. This is a position marked by intense controversy. In a positive light, she captured the ex- uberant spirit, physical vigor, and brazenness of the New Woman.
People who don't think they inhabit categories usually benefit from not naming their location. Akce Coachman Davis and Lula Hymes Glenn, interviews with the author, Tuskegee, Alaba- ma, 7 May 1992; Leila Perry Glover, interview with the author, Atlanta, Georgia, 8 May 1992. I am a particularly uncomfortable subject for the camera but I was also very happy to have these photos in the book because they provide a visual referent for my own masculinity and this forces the reader of my work to factor me into the accounts of masculinity that they are reading. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago. The woman athlete represented both the appealing and threatening aspects of modern womanhood. As symbols of women's refusal to conform, les- bianskndured intense scrutiny by experts who regularly focused on their subjects' presumed masculinity. Lihan Faderman also mentions the popularity of lesbian softball teams in the 1950s; see Odd Girls and Twilight Lcvers: A Histoty ofLesbian Life in Twentieth-Century Amen'ca New York: Columbia University Press, 1991 , 154, 161-62.
Bullough , Routledge, 2002 p. The danger lies in failing to acknowledge the specificity of the oppression. By midcentury, as homosexuality became more open in the United States, the fear of lesbians in sport grew. Sexologsts attributed lesbianism to mas- culine tendencies and fi-eedoms encouraged by the war, linlung it to a general collapsing of gender distinctions which, in their view, destabilized marital and family relations. Typically, lesbian feminism at the time failed to recognize issues related to intersectionality between race, gender, and class.
We have less access to everything than our straight sisters have -- except to violence. Conversely, lesbophobia is a movement to silence lesbians everywhere, to double-dose lesbians with sexism and homophobia and dare us to challenge that erasure of who and what we are. Ann Maguire, a softball player, physical education major, and top amateur bowler ftom New England, recalled that as a teenager in the late 1950s, I had been trying to figure out who I was and couldn't put a name to it. For curricular changes, I examined physical education records at the universities of Wisconsin, Texas, and Minnesota, Radcliffe College, Smith College, Tennessee State Univer- sity, and Hampton University. It was more of a secretive thing.
Her list refuses the banality of the homo-hetero binary and suggests that we are limited not simply by the law but by a failure of the imagination. Even for the postwar era, when gender differentiation among lesbians was most pronounced and stylized, queer femininity often faded from view. The lesbian stereotype exerted pressure on athletes to demonstrate their femininity and heterosexuality, viewed as one and the same. Lesbian athletes used the social and psychic space of sport to create a collective culture and affirmative identity. Let's talk about one of the straightest things I've ever enjoyed.
Lesbian feminists of color argue for , in particular the crossings of , , class, and race, as an important component of lesbian feminist thought. I hope my work can help to reimagine the complex set of relations between sexuality, gender, race and class. It is not surprising, then, that few academics have come forward to discuss the significance of role playing in the past decade, nor is it surprising that those who do often choose to work in pairs. As a result, these roles lend agency and self-determination to the historically passive subject, providing her with at least two options for gender identification and with the aid of camp, an irony that allows her perception to be constructed from outside ideology, with a gender role that makes her appear as if she is inside it. Instead of arguing completely against lesbian role playing, Wilson issues the warning that inherent in any role playing is the possibility for the abuse of power, and butch-femme roles have the potential for being just as sexist as heterosexual roles. We have been left to pray that online threats don't translate into real-life ones, as they have for me and other lesbians. Rather, one of the valuable characteristics of female masculinity might be its ability to describe in different and incomplete ways sexual subcultures as diverse as some of those you've mentioned already: say, drag kings and butches, for example.
This debate presumed that women were heterosexual, though. Heeding dire warnings about menstrual dysfunction, sterility, and inferior offspring, educators created policies to curtail strenuous competition and prohibit play during menstruation. The Marys of the world, women who embody their queerness with gender normativity rather than nonconformity, were and are regarded with misrecognition, confusion, even distrust. Waving the banner of Cold War political and social conservatism, government leaders acted at the federal, state, and local levels to purge gays and lesbians from gov- ernment and military posts, to initiate legal investigations and prosecu- tions of gay individuals and institutions, and to encourage local police crackdowns on gay bars and street life. In addition, they contended, too much exercise would damage female reproductive capacity. Sports for me was the embodiment of that little girl that could do no wrong. Some of the lesbian feminist groups, however, were skeptical of separatism.
In addtion, they recalled that lesbian fans regu- larly attended softball games and occasionally socialized with athletes over postgame meals and drinks. Blood, Bread, and Poetry: Selected Prose 1979-1985. In the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s, butches subscribed to a style of lesbianism rooted in a sense of gendered complementarity in which they were understood as the masculine counterpart to their more traditionally feminine partners: femmes. Go ahead, she doesn't look feminine. However, the feminine respectability and decorum cultivated by the profession provided an initial shield from associations with either the mannish lesbian or her more familiar counterpart, the heterosexual Mus- cle Moll.