However, notes in these denominations issued earlier are still valid and in circulation. Rangarajan 22 December 1992 — 22 November 1997 20 Dr. I, also provides ways and means of advances repayable within 90 days to State Governments. It attempts to mobilise savings for productive purposes. Promotional Role Along with the routine traditional functions, central banks especially in the developing country like India have to perform numerous promotional functions.
One-rupee notes and all types of coins are issued by the Government of India. Reserve bank of India takes part in Foreign Exchange Market by selling or purchasing foreign currencies. A petition was filed under Article 226 of the Constitution, challenging the constitutional validity of section 22 of the Banking Companies Act, 1949. It not only issues currency but also exchanges or destroys currency and coins not fit for circulation. The Reserve Bank has adopted minimum reserve system of note issue.
Reserve bank of India ensures smooth functioning of bank-to-bank transfers made between banks and also to public. Want to share your doubts? The Government also deposits its cash balances with the Reserve Bank. I, relies greatly on the selective methods of credit control. An organisation of such prodigy as the Reserve Bank of India, needs special legal fabric to operate with precision for public as well as national welfare. The Bank makes ways and means advances to the Governments for 90 days. The Central Government entrusts its money, remittance, exchange and banking transactions in India with the Reserve Bank of India. Therefore the Reserve Bank now sells and buys foreign currencies, and not sterling alone, in order to achieve the objective of exchange stability.
Therefore the Reserve Bank now sells and buys foreign currencies, and not sterling alone, in order to achieve the objective of exchange stability. Issue of Bank Notes: The Reserve Bank of India has the sole right to issue currency notes except one rupee notes which are issued by the Ministry of Finance. I, is to control credit. Promotional and Developmental Functions: Besides the traditional central banking functions, the Reserve Bank also performs a variety of promotional and developmental functions: a By encouraging the commercial banks to expand their branches in the semi-urban and rural areas, the Reserve Bank helps i to reduce the dependence of the people in these areas on the defective unorganised sector of indigenous bankers and money lenders, and ii to develop the banking habits of the people b By establishing the Deposit Insurance Corporation, the Reserve Bank helps to develop the banking system of the country, instills confidence of the depositors and avoids bank failures, c Through the institutions like Unit Trust of India, the Reserve Bank helps to mobilise savings in the country, d Since its inception, the Reserve Bank has been mating efforts to promote institutional agricultural credit by developing cooperative credit institutions. All banks are required to maintain a certain percentage lying between 3 p. It formulates and implements monetary policy in the country to maintain stability and growth in the economy. It purchases, sells or discount any bill of exchange or promissory note or makes a loan or advances to schedule bank.
Bank of Issue: Under section 22 of the Reserve Bank of India Act, the bank has the sole right to issue bank notes of all denominations. The Reserve Bank of India is the central Bank of India entrusted with the multidimensional role. However, depending on the evolving situation, the Reserve Bank may announce monetary measures at any point of time. Bank rate, open market operations and cash reserve ratio are used under the quantitative method. Issue of loans, management of public debt, sale of treasury bills are undertaken by the bank. Pre Independence The Royal Commission on Indian Currency and Finance appointed on August 25, 1925 has suggested the establishmentof the Central Bank in India, later the Indian Central Banking Enquiry Committee, 1931 stressed the establishment of the Central Bank in India.
It provides a wide range of promotional functions to support national objectives. In quantitative credit control, the volume of credit is controlled and in qualitative credit control, the direction of credit is regulated. If credit creation is below the required limit then it harms the growth of the economy. Coins now in circulation: Small Coins 50 paisa , Rupee Coins 1, 2, 5, and 10 Notes now in circulation: Bank Notes in Rupees 10, 20, 50, 100, 500, and 1000 3. This helps is extreme situations. It sends its official as representative of the government for international seminars and conferences.
Clearing house: In all big cities Reserve Bank of India has its branches and clearing house operations are undertaken. It regulates not only currency and credit but aids the development of the Indian economy by conducting various types of promotional activities. Surplus liquidity of a more enduring nature arising from large capital inflows is absorbed through sale of short-dated government securities and treasury bills. The Reserve Bank also performs various ordinary banking functions: a , It accepts deposits from the central government, state governments, and even private individuals without interest, b It buys, sells and rediscounts the bills of exchange and promissory notes of the scheduled banks without restrictions, c It grants loans and advances to the central government, state governments, local authorities, scheduled banks and state cooperative banks, repayable within 90 days, d It buys and sells securities of the Government of India and foreign securities, e It buys from and sells to the scheduled banks foreign exchange for a minimum amount of Rs. No other authority has the role of currency manager not even the Finance Ministry of India. These regulatory powers relate to the licensing of banks and their branch expansion; liquidity of assets of the banks; management and methods of working of the banks; amalgamation, reconstruction and liquidation of banks; inspection of banks; etc. However, due to higher cost of printing small denomination notes these denominations are now coincides and issued by Government.
Ghosh 15 January 1985 — 4 February 1985 17 R. Qualitative or , on the other hand includes rationing of credit, margin requirements, direct action, moral suasion publicity, etc. Sen Gupta 19 May 1975 — 19 August 1975 12 K. It maintains and stabilises the external value of the rupee, administers exchange controls and other restrictions imposed by the government, and manages the foreign exchange reserves. It also takes action to control the circulation of fake currency. It performs all the banking functions of the Central government and it also tenders useful advice to the government on the matters related to economic and monetary policy.
This is done in various ways. Initially, the stability of exchange rate was maintained through selling and purchasing sterling at fixed rates. The petitioner contended that the section 22 of the Banking Regulating Act, 1949 is in restraint of trade and business hence unconstitutional. It can come to the rescue of a bank that is solvent but faces temporary liquidity problems by supplying it with much needed liquidity when no one else is willing to extend credit to that bank. Banker to Government: Reserve Bank of India acts as a banker to the government by maintaining the account of Central government and also that of the State government. The Reserve Bank regulates the money supply in accordance with the changing requirements of the economy.